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1. The principle of counters
When you write checks that deal with performance data (CPU usage, network traffic, disk IO), in many cases you will be confronted with counters. As an example, look into the file /proc/stat on your Linux box. Lets grep for the line beginning with processes:
user@host:~$ grep processes /proc/stat processes 205458
What does that mean? It's the number of processes created since the system has booted (not the number of processes currently running!).
Now let's do it again:
user@host:~$ grep processes /proc/stat processes 206160
What do we learn from this? The number of process creations has raised from 205458 to 206160. That is 702 new process creations. If we now assume that we have waited exactly 10 seconds between the two calls, then processes have been created at a rate of 70.2 process creations per second.
So if we have a counter and want to compute a rate, we need to compare the value of the counter between two points of time and need to know how much time has been passed between the first and the second sample of the counter.
From that follows that a Nagios check using data from counters must have a memory of the previous value of the counter together with the exact point of time when that value was seen.
2. Counters in Checkmk
The good news is: Checkmk supports check programmers with the handling of counters. It can keep memory or counter values and compute rates for you. Counter values are stored in /var/lib/check_mk/counters (OMD: tmp/check_mk/counters). The key to this is the helper function get_counter, which is called like this:
timedif, rate_per_sec = get_counter("some.unique.name", this_time, counter_value)
It is important to call this function with a unique name for each separate counter. This is usually done by using the check type and the item as a prefix (unless your check is always using None as item). Here is an example of how the check winperf.diskstat uses get_couter: It uses a separate counter for read IO and write IO:
read_timedif, read_per_sec = get_counter("diskstat.read", this_time, read_bytes_ctr) write_timedif, write_per_sec = get_counter("diskstat.write", this_time, write_bytes_ctr)
The check if is a bit more complex, since it deals with many switch ports and for each port with several counters. It uses the counter name (name) and the port number/description (item) to make the counter unique:
timedif, rate = get_counter("if.%s.%s" % (name, item), this_time, saveint(counter))
The get_counter function returns two values:
- The time difference since the previous update of that counter (in seconds)
- The averaged rate during that interval (per second)
3. Counter wraps and resets
There are two situations where you have to be careful when working with counters: wraps and resets. A wrap occurs when a counter with a limited precision overflows. The most prominent example are the 32 Bit counters in the SNMP IF-MIB that are used for the network traffic - for example ifOutOctets. After 4GB of traffic over a port the counter wraps over back to 0. Such a case must be detected and handled. Otherwise you would get negative values for your rate.
Another situation is a reboot of the target device. In that case all counters start again from 0. This must also be handled correctly in order to avoid anomalies.
get_counter makes a simple but effective wrap detection. If the new counter value is lower than the old one, a wrap/reset is being assumed. Now something important happens: get_counter does not return any value, but raises a Python exception of the MKCounterWrapped. This exception immediately aborts the execution of the check. No check result will be sent to Nagios this turn!
You might think of this as a bug. But it's the only way to do it right! If a counter anomaly occurs then it is not possible to compute the rate in a reliable way. Even if we would know the maximum value of the counter, we still would have no way to distinguish between a wrap and a reset. And returning a rate of 0 would also be wrong and might trigger false alarms, create invalid RRD graphs and would send the user a check result that does not reflect the reality.
Also if get_counter is called for the very first time for a specific counter, as MKCounterWrapped will be raised. No rate can be computed without a previous value. This is the reason why some checks need a bit longer to leave the pending state when a new host is added to the monitoring.
3.1. Checks based on multiple counters
If your check uses more then one are two counters then the time until the first time the check produces results might be no acceptable. The problem is that the MKCounterWrapped exception will immediately abort the check execution as soon as the first counter is initialized. The second time the check is called the second counter will be initialized and so on.
If you want all counters to be initalized at the first check then you need to:
- catch the MKCounterWrapped exception
- let all calls to get_counter happen
- a) either raise a MKCounterWrapped exception afterwards...
- b) or ignore the value of all counters
The following pseudo-code illustrates how to do this correctly (variant a):
wrapped = False for ...: # loop over counters try: timedif, rate = get_counter(.....) # process resulting rate... except MKCounterWrapped: wrapped = True # continue, other counters might wrap as well # after all counters are handled if wrapped: raise MKCounterWrapped("Counter wrap")
Variant b) is only possible if the counters just supply additional performance data but do not influence the check result.
In any case make sure, that your check does always output the same number of performance variables. If some would be missing due to counter wraps, then output none at all. Graphing tools such as PNP4Nagios may break if the number of performance variables vary.